Management & Labour Relations Courses

Employment Acts

Employment Act, 1997

Purpose of the Act

Regulation of working time, ie:

  • Interpretation of day
  • Ordinary hours of work (agriculture)
  • Overtime
  • Compressed working week
  • Averaging of hours of work
  • Meal intervals
  • Daily and weekly rest period
  • Pay for work on Sundays
  • Night work
  • Public holidays

Leave eg.-

  • Annual leave
  • Pay for annual leave
  • Sick leave
  • Proof of incapacity
  • Maternity leave
  • Family responsibility leave

Particulars of employment and remuneration eg.-

  • Written contracts
  • Employees rights and responsibilities
  • Keeping of records
  • Payments of and information about remuneration
  • Deductions

Termination of employment, eg:

  • Notice of termination of employment
  • Payment instead of notice
  • Employees in accommodation provided by employers
  • Payments on termination
  • Severance pay
  • Certificate of service

Employment conditions commission

Employment of children

Labour Relations Act, 1995

  • Purpose of the Act
  • Employees right to freedom of association
  • Employers right to freedom of association
  • Protection of employees’ rights
  • Rights of unions and employers organisations
  • Procedures with disputes
  • Role of the CCMA
  • Arbitration and reconciliation
  • Unions, stop orders, meetings, etc.
  • Unfair dismissals, eg.-
  • Invalid reasons for dismissals
  • Valid reasons for dismissals
  • Workplace forums
  • Code of practice for dismissals, eg:
  • Fair reason for dismissals
  • Misconduct
  • Fair procedures
  • Unsuitability: bad work conduct
  • Disability: bad health or injury

1.2 Conflict Management

Course Details

  • Describe what conflict is and explain the different views of conflict
  • Develop effective conflict resolution skills
  • Describe the need for conflict stimulation and in what situation to apply it
  • Develop effective negation skills
  • Handle “difficult” people in a conflict situation
  • Describe the conflict process
  • Describe tips that negotiators can use to reach consensus
  • Handle conflict in different cultural diversities/backgrounds
  • Describe how to overcome parochialism
  • Complete a case study on conflict resolution

Farm Management

Course Details

  • Steps in decision making
  • Farm management principles
  • Compile crop production
  • Record keeping
  • Information system
  • Determine needs for farming products
  • Determine risks involved in farming activities
  • Perform viability study for farming activities
  • Draft production plan for farming operations
  • Assess natural resources
  • Assess grazing potential for small farming activities
  • Draft a fencing plan for farming activities
  • Draft an utilisation plan
  • Determine equipment and consumable needs for farming activities
  • Administer record keeping system for small farmers
  • Meeting procedures

Management: Small/Largestock Farmers

Course Details

Registration and orientation

Develop a viability study for small-/large stock products

  • Determine community needs for small-/large stock farming
  • Determine natural resources for small-/large stock farming
  • Determine risks involved in small-/large stock farming
  • Implement specific business form
  • -Perform preliminary viability study for small-/large stock farming

Draft marketing plan for small-/large stock agricultural products

  • Determine marketing opportunities for small-/large stock products
  • Conduct market research
  • Design marketing strategy for small-/large stock products
  • Draft marketing plan for small-/large stock farming

Draft production plan for small-/large stock products

  • Conduct SWOT analysis
  • Assess grazing potential for small-/large stock farming
  • Draft a fencing plan for small-/large stock farming
  • Draft an utilisation plan
  • Determine equipment needs for small-/large stock
  • Determine consumables required for small-/large stock
  • Draft production plan

Compile a financial management programme for small-/large stock farmers

  • Determine capital needs
  • Schedule a production plan for small-/large stock
  • -Draft cash flow budget
  • Draft income and expenses budget for small-/large stock farming
  • Keep financial records
  • -Compile a break even budget
  • Determine costs
  • Draft financial plan

Administer the small-/large stock farming plan

  • Administer record keeping system for small-/large stock farming
  • Establish meeting procedures

Supervision and Management


(i) Planning

  • What is planning?
  • Advantages of planning
  • Areas where planning is needed
  • When and how many supervisors have to plan
  • Supervisors that do not plan
  • Setting of effective goals
  • Types of plans
  • Policy
  • Practical: Change policy into goals
  • Procedures and farm rules
  • Steps in planning process
  • Practical exercises in planning

(ii) Scheduling

  • What is scheduling?
  • Scheduling techniques
  • The “GANTT” – and “PERT” – chart


(i) Organising

  • Organising in practise
  • Organising of work in your section
  • Practical exercises in organising

(ii) Organisation

  • The organisation structure
  • Types of organisations
  • The client is king
  • Centralised and decentralised organisations
  • The chain of command
  • The informal organisation


  • What is delegation?
  • Advantages of delegation
  • Authority, responsibility and accountability
  • Who can delegate
  • What can be delegated?
  • How to delegate
  • Practical exercises


  • What is a leader?
  • Are good leaders born or made?
  • The three leadership styles
  • Choice of leadership style
  • Personalities of personnel and your leadership style
  • Other factors that influence leadership styles
  • Good life skills
  • Characteristics of bad leadership
  • Practical exercises


  • What is motivation?
  • Why is motivated person necessary?
  • How does motivation work?
  • Motivation theories
  • Role and skills of motivator
  • Implementing of motivation strategy
  • Practical exercises


  • What is communication?
  • Why does supervisors have to communicate well?
  • Importance of two way communication
  • Acceptability of supervisors
  • The communication process
  • Do (action) is better than talk (words)
  • Evaluation of success of communication
  • Communicating “upwards” and “downwards”
  • Consequences of lack of communication
  • Communication control list
  • Planning of the message
  • Practical: oral communication
  • Basic writing skills for writing reports
  • Practical: Reporting


(i) Problem Identification

  • What is a problem in the work situation as well as outside the work situation?
  • The step – for- step approach
  • Steps in identification of problems
  • Typical problems encountered by a supervisor on a daily basis
  • Exercise: Analysing of a problem

(ii) Decision Making

  • The relevance between problem identification and decision making
  • Types of decisions taken by supervisors
  • Decision making dilemmas
  • The decision making model
  • Decision making mistakes by supervisors
  • Practical exercise: Decision – making


(i) Control

  • What is control?
  • Control and authority
  • Control standards
  • Control systems
  • Characteristics of a good control system
  • Steps in the control process
  • A positive approach to control
  • Feed back when good work was done
  • Resistance of workers to control measures
  • Practical exercise: Control

(ii) Quality control

  • What is quality?
  • What is reliability?
  • What are the results of good quality?
  • Control and quality
  • Role of inspection
  • Quality policy or -programs on the farm
  • Quality guidelines
  • Control measures
  • Exercise: Quality control

(iii) Cost Control

  • What is cost control?
  • Types of costs
  • Budgets
  • Reports and costs
  • Advantage of a budget control system
  • Compiling a budget
  • How to reduce costs
  • Exercise: Cost control


(i) Safety

  • Why is safety important?
  • Causes of accidents
  • Types of accidents
  • Preventative measures
  • Consequences of accidents
  • Safety clothing
  • Safety tips
  • Practical exercise: Safety

(ii) Housekeeping

  • What is good housekeeping in the work environment?
  • Tidiness of rooms, stores, bathrooms, etc.
  • Stores
  • Workshops
  • Competition for tidy housekeeping
  • Practical exercises


• The role of the supervisor in recruitment actions
• What does labour turnover mean
• Cost implications of absenteeism
• Forecasting of work force’s needs
• To big work force versus to small work force
• Advantages of job descriptions
• What is needed in a job description?
• Interviews
• What to look for when interviewing an applicant
• Selection process
• Practical exercise: Recruitment


• Purpose of induction programmes
• Why is induction important?
• The induction process
• Mistakes to avoid in the induction period
• Practical exercise: Induction


• Why is giving of instructions important?
• Advantages of a well trained work force
• Identification of training needs
• Is bad performance always due to bad or no training?
• Types of training
• How do people learn?
• How to make work easier to learn
• Breaking work up into “eatable” portions
• Preparing a list with key points
• The order in which work can be learned
• Instruction methods
• Practical exercises


• Background to labour relations
• Conflict
• Role of the supervisor in labour relations
• Workers representation
• Difference between workers committees and unions
• Function and powers of unions
• Types of unions
• Structure of a union
• Structure and role of committees
• Employer organisations
• Employer organisations in SA
• Functions and powers of employer organisations
• Employee conduct
• Employer conduct
• Unfair labour practices
• Disputes
• Bodies that resolve disputes
• Dispute resolving methods
• Handling conflict during labour unrest
• Practical exercises


  • What is grievance?
  • The supervisor’s role in handling grievances
  • Importance of effective handling of grievances by the supervisor
  • Procedures in handling grievances
  • Obtaining co-operation of employees
  • Rules in handling grievances
  • Determine effectiveness of resolutions of grievances
  • Best known reasons for grievances of employees
  • Practical exercises


• What is discipline?
• Self discipline
• Limitations for supervisors when exercising discipline
• Disciplinary fairness
• Disciplinary steps
• Timing of disciplinary actions
• Who must be present during disciplinary actions?
• The right of an employee to be represented
• Disciplinary equality
• Sound labour practices
• Guidelines for discipline
• Practical exercises

Problem Solving & Decision Making

This programme is aimed at any young adult or adult learner who needs to improve their problem solving and decision making skills.

Programme Outcomes

  • Know and understand the stages of problem identification
  • Know and understand the process of problem solving
  • Know and understand the process of decision making
  • Know and understand the principles of ethical decision making

Problem Solving

Define the problem:

  • What is wrong?
  • Be realistic
  • Be optimistic (believe that it will be solved)
  • Be honest if the problem is of a personal nature
  • State the problem clearly and honestly

Find the cause

  • What went wrong?
  • What caused the problem?
  • Think of all possibilities

Find solutions

  • Be creative (think of new ways to solve the problem)
  • Look for alternatives (other ways)
  • What are the advantages and disadvantages of each solution
  • What will the outcome be (what will happen)
  • Pick the best solution (the best way to solve the problem)

Plan implementation

  • List actions, dates and who will take responsibility

Implement the solution

  • Carry out actions according to plan


  • Measure progress (is it getting better)
  • Follow up – is the problem still solved after a period of time
  • Are you happy with the outcome

If the solution did not solve the problem –

  • Go back to the implementation plan (step four)
  • Look at alternatives again, other ways to do it (step three)
  • Plan the implementation again
  • Implement it


Course Details

Definition of a group

Steps in group development

Group Conduct

  • External factors
  • Individual contribution of members
  • Group structures
  • Group process
  • Group tasks

Effective Teams

  • Definition of a team
  • Kind of terms

–              Reasons for teamwork

*             Stimulate “Esprit de Corps”

*             Strategic management

*             Effective decision making

*             Workforce diversity

*             Increased productivity

Development and management of effective teams

  • Sound goals
  • Relevant skills
  • Trust in a team
  • Unity for success
  • Effective communication
  • Negotiation skills
  • Effective leadership
  • Internal and external support

Characteristics of effective teams

Management of teams

  • Planning
  • Organising
  • Leadership
  • Control

Types of interpersonal skills that can be used by management teams

Questions and evaluation

Self evaluation exercise

Case study

Marketing Management


At the end of this module, the student will be capable to:

  • Do a feasibility study for livestock and horticulture
  • Predict its market share for livestock and horticulture
  • Describe the elements of the marketing strategy
  • Compile a marketing plan


  • Describe what is necessary to start a farming enterprise
  • Describe the term “Production”
  • Describe the three steps to develop your market
  • Describe to which factors a successful farming opportunity must comply
  • Describe marketing opportunities
  • Calculate the size of the potential market and determine your market share
  • Identify your competition
  • Do market research

Describe the elements of the marketing recipe i.e.:

  • Product
  • Place
  • Promotion
  • Price
  • Personnel
  • Compile a marketing plan
  • Describe economical planning of a farming business with budgets
  • Identify and describe value-adding opportunities for your farming enterprise