Plant Production Courses

Citrus Cultivation

Course Details

  • Planting and caring for young citrus trees
    • Planting of young trees
    • Caring for young plants
  • Fertilisation of citrus trees
    • Function of fertilizer
    • Handling of fertilizer
    • Taking of leaf and soil samples
    • Application of fertilizer to the ground
    • Application of fertilizer by means of irrigation
  • Irrigation of citrus trees
    • General background on irrigation
    • Factors influencing water consumption
    • Factors that determine the effectiveness of irrigation
    • Scheduling
    • Preparation, plant and use of a tensiometer
  • Spraying of citrus trees
    • Correct handling of chemicals agents
    • Handling of application equipment
    • Preparing the spray mixture
    • Procedures during spraying in the orchard
    • Cleaning of application equipment
  • Picking and handling of citrus
    • The picking process is addressed

Vegetable Propagation

Course Details

  • Registration and orientation
  • Adhere to all safety and housekeeping rules
  • Plan planting time in advance

Prepare vegetable garden:

  • Select site
  • Till soil
  • Mark out bed
  • Form bed
  • Fumigate
  • Fertilise


  • Seed potato
  • Seed
  • Plant seed potato
  • Sow and cover seed

Prepare and mulch bed:

  • Select mulch material
  • Distribute mulch over bed
  • Transplant seedlings

Maintain plants:

  • Irrigate
  • Spray
  • Control diseases and plague

Maize Production


  • Economic importance
  • Production areas
  • Production potential

Growth & Development of the Maize Plant

Plant Description

  • Botanical relationship
  • Morphology and development
  • Pollination
  • Identifiable growth stages
  • Critical growth stages

Growth requirements of the maize plant

  • Cultivar traits
  • Climatic requirements
  • Soil requirements

Preparation & the Planting of Maize

Preparation before planting

  • Soil tillage
  • Fertilization
  • Production systems
  • Cultivar selection

Planting, managing and harvesting of maize

  • Preliminary planning
  • Planting of maize
  • Managing planted maize
  • Harvesting of maize
  • Grading of grain
  • Inspection and grading of seed maize

Crop Protection

Weed control

  • Weed classification
  • Methods of weed control
  • Mechanical weed control
  • Chemical weed control

Insect control

  • Insects that attack maize in the soil
  • Insects that attack plants above the soil
  • Other insects

Disease control

  • Bacterial diseases
  • Virus diseases
  • Fungal diseases

Monitor (Orchard)

Course Details

  • Reasons for monitoring
  • Characteristics of a monitor
  • Duties and responsibilities of the monitor
  • Equipment used for monitoring
  • Basic biological terms
  • Hanging of traps
  • Positioning of traps in orchards/land
  • Reading and maintenance of traps
  • Placing of strips
  • Reading and maintenance of strips
  • Identification of species different stages and damage caused by pests
  • Identification of pests for which no specific monitoring system exist
  • Identification of diseases
  • Completion of a monitoring form

Organic Agricultural

Course Details

  • Adhere to safety and housekeeping procedures
  • Be able to demonstrate the positioning of organic agriculture in the mainstream
  • Planning the organic agricultural endeavor

Implement Permaculture design systems

  • Determine the feasibility of various enterprises
  • Select appropriate enterprises
  • Design and lay out a land plan
  • Implement the land plan 

Working with mineral soils

  • Explore and show typical components
  • Identify soil texture & soil structure
  • Make correct decisions, based on the different physical properties of agricultural soils
  • Differentiate between different plant nutrients
  • Be able to explain influences to a lands’ crop yield potential
  • Collect soil and complete related (to above) experiments

Practical composting – organic fertilizing

  • Be able to explain influences to soil evolution
  • Build a compost heap
  • Demonstrate familiarity with the natural processes in a compost heap
  • Distinguish between various methods of composting
  • Make various organic fertilizers

Implement soil conservation practices

  • Be able to identify types, forms and consequences of erosion
  • Rehabilitate eroded areas
  • Design contour banks and swales
  • Prepare a line level
  • Construct and use an “A” frame
  • Record all activities

Introduction to the use of Effective Micro-organisms (EM)

  • Be able to apply EM products and their derivatives
  • Make the EM products and their derivatives
  • Record all activities 

Plan the organic vegetable enterprise

  • Identify various plant components (essential basic botany)
  • Practice crop rotations
  • Site the organic vegetable enterprise
  • Establish the enterprise
  • Maintain the enterprise
  • Identify insects, pests and diseases
  • Control insects, pests and diseases by organic methods
  • Harvest, pack and market the produce
  • Save seeds
  • Record all activities 

Plan an organic crop enterprise

  • Practice crop rotations
  • Site the organic crop enterprise
  • Establish the enterprise
  • Maintain the enterprise
  • Identify insects, pests and diseases
  • Control insects, pests and diseases by organic methods
  • Harvest, pack and market the produce
  • Save seeds
  • Record all activities

Plan to establish an organic fruit orchard

  • Design layout of an integrated fruit orchard
  • Select appropriate tree types
  • Select organic fertilizing program
  • Prune trees at appropriate times
  • Recognize insects, pests and diseases
  • Control insects, pests and diseases by organic methods
  • Harvest selected fruit
  • Pack and market fruit
  • Process fruit for added value
  • Record all activities

Plan to establish an organic poultry enterprise

  • Distinguish between the different types and breeds of poultry
  • Select housing and equipment
  • Handle and care for broilers
  • Handle and care for layers
  • Feed the appropriate feeds for the different growth stages
  • Recognize pests and diseases of poultry
  • Combat pests and diseases by the organic methods
  • Establish record keeping
  • Handle egg production, culls and marketing
  • Slaughter and sell broilers
  • Manage new/replacement stock
  • Record all activities

Plan to establish an organic cattle enterprise

  • Design layout of cattle infrastructure
  • Identify different cattle breeds and types
  • Choose milk and/or beef cattle
  • Select appropriate feeding program for the selected type of cattle
  • Manage the selected feeding program
  • Choose milk and/or beef cattle
  • Manage pasture rotations
  • Recognize pest and diseases of cattle
  • Combat pest and diseases by the organic methods
  • Market cattle products and by-products
  • Record all activities

Plan to establish small stock enterprise

  • Design layout of the selected animal enterprise/s
  • Select feeding programs/s
  • Select management system/s
  • Select organic pest and disease controls
  • Market the selected stock and its products
  • Record all activities

Decide an apiculture enterprise

  • Work with and manage a bee hive
  • Harvest honey
  • Pack, label and market honey
  • Record all activities

Adhere to local and/or international organic standards

  • Apply local and international organic production standards
  • Adhere to all production standards throughout the farming process/s
  • Achieve organic certification


Course Details

  • Water needs of plants
  • Use of tensiometers
  • Tensiomenters and their preparation, installation and servicing
  • Irrigation scheduling
  • Soil water-holding capacity and available soil water
  • Irrigation systems
  • Filter systems
  • Sprinkler irrigation
  • Sprinkler system design
  • General maintenance of sprinklers
  • Types of sprinkler systems
  • Sprinkler system application rate
  • Water measurement

Pest Management in Agriculture

Weeds & Weed Management


  • Introduction
  • Weeds: What are they?
  • Weeds: Classification
  • Weeds: Their Impacts
  • Interference
  • Competition
  • Allelopathy
  • Advantages of weeds

Weeds: Their Biology and Ecology

  • Weed Propagation
  • Growth and development of weeds
  • Weed Control

Methods of weed Control

  • Mechanical weed control
  • Cultivation practices
  • Chemical weed control
  • Classification of Herbicides

Weed Management Programmes

  • Introduction
  • Selecting a herbicide
  • Herbicide selectivity
  • Herbicide persistence
  • Weeds: The Law
  • Herbicide Classification – Mode of Action
  • References

Insects & Insect Control


  • Introduction
  • Insect Morphology
  • Insect Development
  • Insect Feeding
  • Crop Damage caused by insects
  • Monitoring of insects
  • Insect pest status
  • Insect control practices
  • References

Plant Diseases


  • Introduction
  • Fungal Diseases
  • Bacterial Diseases
  • Plant Viruses
  • Control of plant diseases
  • Chemical control of plant diseases

Chemical groups of fungicides

Pesticide Application


  • Pest Biology and Ecology
  • Monitoring of Pest Population
  • Pesticide Droplet size and Behaviour
  • Meteorological Conditions and Pesticide Application
  • Pesticide Application Volume
  • Pesticide Application Equipment
  • Nozzle Selection
  • Calibration
  • Formulae used in Calibration

Pesticide: Formulations & Safety


  • Formulation
  • Adjuvants
  • Pesticide and Water Quality
  • Safe use of Pesticides
  • Pesticide registration
  • Storage, mixing and application of pesticide
  • Pesticide hazard classification and risk

Fertilising and Irrigation

Course Details

Basic background of irrigation, eg. Importance of correct way of irrigation, factors that determine plant’s use of water, soil quality, etc.

  • Basic background of all irrigation systems
  • Implementation and service of Centrifugal pumps
  • Implementation and cleaning of irrigation filters
  • Installation and maintenance of irrigation pumps
  • Implementation and maintenance of control systems
  • Implementation and maintenance of creeping spout
  • Implementation and maintenance of centre pivot sprayer
  • Implementation and maintenance of micro- and trickle systems
  • Implementation and maintenance of sprinkle irrigation
  • Implementation and maintenance of drag lines
  • Irrigation of seedbeds
  • Irrigation of different seedlings
  • Planning of irrigation intervals and scheduling of irrigation
  • Correct fertilisation of different plants
  • The role and correct use of different fertilisers
  • Practical use of irrigation systems and fertilisers

Vegetable Production

Module 1

  • Planning and preparing your vegetable garden
  • Selecting a site for your vegetable garden
  • Tools you will need
  • Safety
  • Sowing seeds and planting seedlings
  • Seedling production systems
  • Planting seedlings into the garden
  • Mulching and mulches
  • Seed storage and treatment
  • Soil
  • Manure and other organic fertilisers
  • Vegetables and compost beds
  • Door gardens
  • Processing your vegetables

Module 2

Module 2

  • Types of vegetable crops

Specific crops

  • Peppers
  • Tomatoes
  • Cabbage, broccoli, and other Cole crops
  • Leafy green crops
  • Squash, gourd and pumpkin
  • Onions
  • Sweet potatoes
  • Potatoes

Hydroponics Crop Production


  • Explain the advantages of hydroponics system
  • Explain disadvantages of hydroponics systems
  • Explain and demonstrate hydroponics production systems
  • Explain and demonstrate greenhouse construction
  • Explain and demonstrate the working of the hydroponics production unit
  • Explain and demonstrate the use of hydroponics growth media
  • Explain and demonstrate the production of vegetables in a hydroponics production unit
  • Explain and demonstrate sanitation in the hydroponics production environment


  • Explain what plant nutrients are and the purpose of it
  • Explain and demonstrate fertilizer application in hydroponics units
  • Explain and demonstrate the application of nutrients solutions in a hydroponics system


  • Explain and demonstrate irrigation scheduling in a hydroponics unit
  • Explain the components in an irrigation system
  • Explain and demonstrate the use of irrigation systems


  • Explain insect morphology
  • Explain insect development
  • Explain insect feeding
  • Explain and demonstrate crop damage caused by insects
  • Explain and demonstrate monitoring of insects in a hydroponics sysytem
  • Explain insect pest status
  • Explain and demonstrate insect control practices


  • Explain and demonstrate fungal diseases
  • Explain and demonstrate bacterial diseases
  • Explain and demonstrate plant viruses
  • Explain and demonstrate the control of plant diseases
  • Explain and demonstrate the chemical control of fungal diseases


  • Explain pesticide droplets
  • Explain and demonstrate pesticide application volume
  • Explain and demonstrate pesticide equipment
  • Explain nozzles and nozzle selection
  • Explain and demonstrate calibration of knapsack sprayers, boom and nozzle sprayers
  • Explain and demonstrate formulas used in calibration.



  • Registration and orientation
  • Adhere to all safety and housekeeping rules
  • Prune at time of planting
  • Remove excessive sprouts
  • Assure dominant growth
  • Remove sprouts on tips of branches
  • Thin outside branches
  • Clean the tops of leader sprouts
  • Thins out branch formations
  • Remove one year-old sprouts


  • Identify the various parts of a vine shoot/cutting
  • Handle pruning shears
  • Preliminary clean vineyard rows
  • Replace dead vine shoot/cutting
  • Braid long carrier as with sultanas
  • Apply long cut pruning method to sultanas
  • Apply short cut pruning method to wine grapes
  • Seal big pruned edges

Appliance of Chemicals

Module I - Handling of containers and chemical agents

  • Transporting containers with chemical agents
  • Handling of containers with chemical agents
  • Preparing the spray mixture
  • Destroying of empty containers and clearing away agents

Module II - Handling and maintaining application equipment

  • Handling of application equipment
  • Maintenance of application equipment
  • Prevention of defective spraying procedures

Module III - Application of agents

  • Application of weed-killer
  • Application of granular pest-killers

Module IV - Safeguarding and application of first aid

  • Using a “poison store”
  • Precautionary measures
  • Correct action in cases of poisoning
  • Application of emergency treatment

On Farm Use of Chemicals

Course Details

  • Introduction
  • Toxicity of chemicals used on farm


Pesticide toxicity

  • Transportation and packaging of hazardous chemicals
  • Protecting users of chemicals against poisoning
  • Handling poisoning due to chemicals
  • Common symptoms of poisoning
  • First-aid treatments
  • Handling severe symptoms
  • Application of closed chest cardiac massage
  • Handling of chemical spills
  • Chemical storage

Pesticides & Their Role in Pest Management

Course Details

  • Pesticides classification
  • Pesticide formulations
  • Pesticides and water quality
  • Safe use of pesticides
  • Pesticide registration
  • Storage, mixing and application of pesticides
  • Pesticide application equipment
  • Nozzles and nozzle selection
  • Calibration
  • Maintenance
  • General maintenance
  • Scouting to determining pest status
  • Scouting for pest status – procedures
  • The pesticide label
  • Making pesticide solutions and dilutions
  • Using pesticide logs

Post Harvest Pest & Disease Management

Course Details

  • Pesticide classification
  • Pesticide formulations
  • Pesticides and water quality
  • Safe use of pesticides
  • Pesticide registration
  • Storage, mixing and application of pesticides
  • The pesticide label
  • Making solutions and dilutions
  • Using pesticide logs
  • Using pesticide identification and registration labels
  • Post harvest disease management
  • Post harvest pesticide dips
  • Curing and post harvest handling
  • Post harvest fumigation
  • Non-conventional control
  • Post harvest disease control

Disinfectants & Microbial Control

Course Details

  • Types of microbial control agents
  • Toxicity of disinfectants used on farm
  • Protecting users of disinfectants against poisoning
  • Disinfectant application
  • Making up solutions and dilutions
  • Using disinfectant logs
  • Using disinfectant identification and registration labels